360 Degree Wheel Rotation Vehicle – Mechanical Project

Abstract :

The design and fabrication of 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle using DC motor and steering is done to reduce time to turn from one direction to other direction. This vehicle can move in all direction at a same position by used of steering, sprocket, DC motor, bearing and chain drive. Main function of this vehicle is easy to move from one direction to other direction. Modern development and economical progression of Indian society resulted in increase of people on railway platform, increase of vehicle on the road,due to space constraints, in hospital is major problem of the country. Present study aims for development of a system to reduce the turning radius of vehicle.In this system at first vehicle is stopped and wheels are then turned in the required direction with help of steering system and DC motor. It has turning radius nearly equal to negligible of length of the vehicle itself.This vehicle used to carry the goods in various area such as, railway platform, hospital, industries and market.

Introduction

This project is about design of 360 degree wheel rotating vehicle. This vehicle moves in all directions and this design provides better comfort and also saves the time of customers, most of the people using this vehicle to carry goods, patient etc. But most of the time, they have to face the problem like taking U turn etc. So have to design a 360 degree wheel rotating vehicle to reduce and eliminate problems in the industry and at the railway platform. Zero degree turning radius of a vehicle implies the vehicle rotating about an axis passing through the center of gravity of vehicle i.e. the vehicle turning at the same place, where it is standing. No extra space is required to turn the vehicle. So vehicle is to be turned in the space equal to the length of the vehicle itself. In this system, steering is connected to sprocket and this sprocket is connected to sprocket of front wheel by chain drive. Steering is used to provide the direction of front wheel. The DC motor is connected to sprocket bolt at above of frame. When power supply from battery to DC motor then rotary motion transfer from DC motor to the wheel. The bearings are provide below sprocket which allow to wheel rotate 360 degreeabout vertical axis. Then this same rotary motion is transfer to the rear wheels by sprockets and chain drive arrangement. So as a result this arrangement of the vehicle wheels to turn 90 degrees left and 90 degree right from original position, but front wheels of this vehicle rotate 360 degree by steering, sprocket and chain drive arrangement. Without moving from the spot, i.e. the vehicle has zero turning radius. This helps in maneuvering the vehicle in tight spaces such as parking lots and within small compounds.The various functions of the steering wheel are to control the angular motion the wheels, direction of motion of the vehicle, to provide directional stability of the vehicle while going straight ahead, to facilitate straight ahead condition of the vehicle after completing a turn, the road irregularities must be damped to the maximum possible extent. This should co-exist with the road feel for the driver so that he can feel the road condition without experiencing the effects of moving over it.

Working principle and components

This project consist of steering, chain sprocket,DC motor, wheel, bearing, iron pipe, battery and chain drive. In this system first the vehicle is stopped and wheels are then turned in the required direction with help of steering system and DC motor. Teeth of sprocket are completely mesh with chain drive which has used to provide rotary motion to rear wheels by help of DC motor. Steering is used to provide direction of rotation to front wheels by help of sprocket and chain drive arrangement. DC motors are used in each wheel to provide forward and backward movement of this vehicle, also a battery is used to provide electrical energy of each DC motor. It has turning radius nearly equal to negligible of length of the vehicle itself. This system is to be useful in hospitals, small industries and also on railway platforms.

  • 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle consist of steering, chain sprocket, chain drive, iron pipe, battery, DC motor and wheel.
  • In this vehicle sprocket of front wheel and sprocket of steering are connected by first chain drive and sprocket of rear wheel connected to second chain drive and DC motor has is given to each wheel to provide forward and backward movement of vehicle.
  • When steering is to rotate clockwise and anticlockwise direction by hand then sprocket is connected with steering also rotates clockwise and anticlockwise direction. This rotary motion transfers to front wheels by chain drive because teeth of sprocket and chain drive are completely mesh to each other. Bearing is provided with sprocket which allows the wheel to rotate 360 degree. So as a result front wheels of this vehicle rotates in 360 degree direction by steering at a same position.
  • When power is supplied from the battery to DC motor then DC motor starts to rotate in clockwise direction and also sprocket will rotate in clockwise direction because sprocket bolt is connected to DC motor, the same rotary force is transferred to other rear wheels by chain drive because sprocket of rear wheel are connected by chain drive and bearing has provide with sprocket which allow to wheel rotate. So as a result rear wheels also rotate 90 degree left from original position and reverse current flow from battery to DC motor then rear wheels rotate 90 degree right from original position.
  • When power supply from battery to DC motors of each wheels then each DC motor starts rotate then wheels also rotate with DC motor because wheels and DC motors are connected by bolts and nuts. As a result vehicle moves in forward direction and when reverse current flow from battery to DC motors, then DC motors start rotate in opposite direction. As a result vehicle is move in backward direction.
360 Degree Wheel Rotation Vehicle mechanical project
360 Degree Wheel Rotation Vehicle mechanical project

The main components used to fabricate the model are:

  • Steering
  • Sprocket
  • Chain drive
  • Wheel
  • Iron pipe
  • DC motor
  • Bearing
  • Fixed frame
  • Battery

Battery
Battery is one of the important parts of 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle. Which is connected to DC motor by electric wire. It is store electrical energy and supply to DC motor so vehicle will move forward and backward direction. Batteries operate by converting chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical discharge reactions. Batteries are composed of one or more cells, each containing a positive electrode, negative electrode, separator, and electrolyte. Cells is to be divided into two major classes primary and secondary. Primary cells are not rechargeable and must be replaced once the reactants are depleted. Secondary cells are rechargeable and require a DC charging source to restore reactants to their fully charged state.

Advantages

  • It consumes very less time to turn from one direction to other direction.
  • It is more efficient compare to other type of load carry vehicle.
  • This type of load carry vehicle is easily parked in any direction.
  • It is less costly load carry vehicle.
  • Eco friendly.
  • Less noise operation.
  • Battery operated thus no fuel required.
  • More efficient.
  • Battery is using in this 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle to move forward and backward, so it is a kind pollution free vehicle.

Disadvantages

  • This type of load carry vehicle is not applicable to carry more weight.
  • Battery power is required to move of the vehicle.

Application

  • In Industries for automation of raw material like automated guided vehicle.
  • In automobile sector there are so many types of vehicle are using to carry goods from one position to another position, there is space problem in the industry so this vehicle is used in automobile applications because this vehicle consumes very less space compare to other type of vehicle.
  • This vehicle is used in small Industries for transportation of raw material from one position to another position.
  • Modern development and economical progression of Indian society resulted in increase of vehicle in park so there are also problem. In park other vehicle are taking more space to move from one direction to other direction and 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle have capability to move parallel direction so this vehicle is easily move from one direction to other direction in park.
  • Take easily U-turn because front wheel of this vehicle are rotating freely by steering, chain drive and sprocket arrangement.
  • It is used in hospitals to carry the patient from one room to another room. Because there are lots of patients those are staying in one room.
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